-“Improve Your Training by Keeping a Log
-“Split-squats: The Modified Forward Lunge”
-“Nutrition: The Coffee Shop Menu”
1 – RESEARCH
variation in strength & endurance among resistance
L.D. and J.L. Mayhew. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 30(5): s115,
22 males were allocated to train at 6am or 5pm (3x’s/week for 6 months).
Both groups were then tested for bench press strength
& endurance at 6am and 5pm (in random order). No differences
in strength or endurance occurred due to the time of measurement.
Therefore, despite the general belief that strength varies depending on
the time of day, this research study did not show any
differences in performance.
carbohydrate ingestion: effect of the glycemic index on
endurance exercise performance”
M.J., S.S. Selig, and M.A. Febbraio. Med. Sci. Sports
Exerc. 30(6): 844-849,
8 males consumed a placebo, a high-glycemic carbohydrate, OR a low-glycemic
carbohydrate meal 45-minutes prior to a 50-minute session
of moderate-intensity cycling. The high-glycemic carbohydrate
meal caused hypoglycemia (low-blood sugar) and increased
the use of carbohydrate for fuel (rather than using fat).
The low-glycemic diet had a lower rate of carbohydrate
use but there were no differences in performance.
Avoid high-glycemic carbohydrates before exercise, save them for your
post-exercise recovery meal, in combination with a whey
of hydration changes on bioelectrical impedance in endurance
M.J., J.E. Blevins, and C.E. Broeder. Med. Sci. Sports
Exerc. 30: 885-892,
15 males were assessed for body composition using bioelectrical impedance
(BI) under 4 hydration conditions: normal, hypo-hydrated,
re-hydrated, and super-hydrated states. The super-hydrated
and hypo-hydrated conditions were significantly different
from the normal hydrated condition body composition measured
by +/- 3%. The results indicate the state of body hydration
can greatly influence BI body-fat measures. Therefore,
the reliability of BI measures may be low if the hydration
state is not standardized.
Don’t trust BI machines in gyms, they are likely not as accurate as the
one tested in this study. What is your best bet for body
fat measurements at the gym? Get an experienced personal
trainer to do skinfold measurements. Always have the same
trainer do your measures and get this done once every
6-8 weeks to track your progress.
training increases fat-free mass and strength in untrained
K. and M. Caldwell. J. Amer. Dietetic Assoc. 98: 414-418,
20 females participated in a weight-training program to determine the
effects of training on resting metabolic rate, fat-free
mass, strength, and dietary intake. 10 subjects trained
for 12-weeks (2 total-body workouts/week; 6 exercises
X 3 sets X 10 reps) program and ten subjects were controls.
The results indicated a low-volume of moderate-intensity
resistance training increased strength and decreased body
fat without a concurrent restriction in food intake.
Everyone should incorporate resistance training in their fitness regimens,
especially young women seeking improvements in their body
composition. Furthermore, the total time commitment for
an improvement in body composition was only 2 hours per
week, making it a time efficient training method.
performance and enzymatic adaptations to sprint interval
training” MacDougall, J.D., A.L. Hicks, J.R. MacDonald,
R.S. McKelvie, H.J. Green, and K.M.
Smith. J. Appl. Physiol. 84: 2138-2142, 1998.
males performed sprint-cycling interval training for 7
weeks. Muscle enzyme activity, peak power output, total
work (over repeated efforts), and VO2max were
measured. In week 1, subjects did 4 maximum intensity
sprints (30-seconds) with 4-minutes recovery and progressed
to 10 intervals with 2.5-minutes recovery by week 7. Training
increased peak power output, total work, VO2,
and maximal enzyme activity. Therefore, even brief intense
sprints can increase oxidative capacity and oxygen consumption
(aerobic capacity and exercise recovery ability).
involved in stop-and-start sports may want to increase their
sprint training and decrease their general endurance training.
This study shows improvements in sport-specific metabolic
conditioning as well as general endurance after a program
of sprint intervals.
2 – KEEPING A LOG BOOK
and planning programs helps fight off the temptation to
skip training sessions and removes the burden of having
to decide what to do immediately before a workout. The
plan should include all the exercises, sets, and repetitions
required in the workout. All of these should be recorded
during the workout along with any additional forced repetitions
or eccentric (negative) repetitions.
any injuries OR illnesses and the circumstances in which
they occurred. Noting your mood OR the training environment
(i.e. crowded gym, sore hamstring, etc.) will also help
to determine your optimal training time and conditions.
Long- and short-term goals should be written somewhere
in the log to increase commitment and maintain motivation.
Always re-evaluate your goals after a sufficient time-interval
and re-evaluate your training methods and progress.
– SPLIT SQUATS – A MODIFIED FORWARD LUNGE
difference between a split squat and a lunge is that during
the concentric portion of a lunge, you explode back to
an upright position. With the split squat, you use a stationary
stance where you go up and down working the forward leg.
Stand in the squat rack and place a loaded bar on the
thick area of the trapezius muscle.
Focus your head forward in order to maintain proper neck
Keep your feet should be shoulder-width apart.
Take a big step forward with your weaker leg to reach
the initial starting position. Always work your weaker
leg first in single leg exercises. This has been termed
the “weak-side” rule.
Lower the hips keeping the back as erect as possible and
the chest up. Essentially you will be performing a single-leg
squat (using the back leg for balance).
Lower yourself under control until the lead leg is bent
By keeping your elbows under the bar throughout the movement
you will ensure that the load is kept as close as possible
over the center of gravity.
Inhale through the mouth throughout the descent.
Keep the torso as perpendicular to the floor as possible,
particularly at the sticking point (the hardest part of
the movement). Extend at the knee and the hips by contracting
the quadriceps and glutes respectively.
The athlete should exhale throughout the ascent.
Keep the eccentric lowering under control & do not
allow the torso to lean forward.
To change the resistance curve on this movement, you can
hold dumbbells; position the barbell on the traps; keep
the barbell on the clavicles using a front squat grip;
or hold a single handle hooked to a low pulley using the
contra-lateral hand (opposite).
Not only do these exercises develop the glutes, they also
provide plenty of growth stimulus for the quadriceps,
adductors, and hamstrings.
– THE TIM HORTON’S MENU
For any American readers, Tim Horton’s is the most popular
doughnut franchise in Ontario. This menu will help you decide
your fate when and if you are ever forced into snacking
at this type of venue.
CALORIES (g of PROTEIN & %TOTAL FAT)
fritter = 341 (6g & 40%)
Dutchie = 306 (5g &
= 374 (4g & 53%)
cream = 257 (4g & 28%)
Jelly-filled = 275 (4g & 26%)
= 41 (1g & 44%)
OR Cherry pie
= 490 (6g & 41%)
= 324 (4g & 36%)
tart = 348 (4g & 39%)
Croissant = 220 (5g & 50%)
= 150 (3g & 50%)
= 425 (5g & 34%)
Blueberry = 320 (5g & 32%)
= 280 (5g & 7%)
= 300 (11g & 8%)
cheese (1.5 oz)
= 140 (2g & 84%) ---Watch out!
cheese light (1.5 oz) =
102 (3g & 70%) --- Not much better!
(10 oz) = 275 (17g & 33%)
noodle soup (10 oz) =
150 (9g & 20%)
of mushroom (10 oz)
= 223 (6g & 36%)
a doughnut is no more excessive in calories or fat in comparison
to a regular muffin, 6 Timbits, a piece of pie, a bagel
smothered in cream cheese, OR a croissant.